Hebrew Glossary

Brief definitions for Hebrew words and phrases we use regularly at Berkman Mercaz Limud and throughout Rodeph Shalom

Ahavah – love

Aleinu

Aliyah (pl. aliyot) –

Amidah – the central prayer of the Jewish worship service, during which worshippers generally stand; literally, “standing”

Am Yisrael – the people of Israel; another way of saying “Jews” or “the Jewish community”

Avot v’Imahot – the first part of the Amidah; literally, “fathers and mothers”

Bamidbar – the fourth book of the Torah, known in English as the Book of Numbers

Bat Mitzvah

Bar Mitzvah

B’nai Mitzvah -

Boker or – the reply when someone wishes you “boker tov”; literally, “morning light”

Boker tov – good morning

B’racha (pl. brachot) – blessing or prayer

B’reishit – the first book of the Torah, known in English as the Book of Genesis

Chumash – a book containing the words of Torah, often with commentary

D’varim – the fifth book of the Torah, known in English as the Book of Deuteronomy

Eretz Yisrael – the land of Israel

G’vurot – the second part of the Amidah

Haftarah – a book of selected readings from the Tanakh which correspond to the parashat hashavua; selections from the books of the prophets in the Tanakh

Hanukkah – the eight-day holiday celebrating the liberation of Jerusalem and the Second Temple from the rule of the Syrian-Greeks; literally, “re-dedication”

Hanukiah (pl. hanukiot) – the nine-branched menorah (candelabra) used during Hanukah

Havdalah – ceremony marking the end of Shabbat on Saturday evening; literally, “separation”

Kaddish --

Kavannah – Intention, mindfulness

Kedusha – Holiness; also, the third part of the Amidah

Kehillah (pl. kehillot) – community

Kiddush – prayer/blessing recited before drinking wine

Labriut – bless you (said after a sneeze)

L’hitraot – see you later

Medinat Yisrael – the State of Israel

Mercaz Limud – learning center

Mitzvah (pl. mitzvot) --

Minyan

Mishloach manot – gifts of food given to friends and family during the holiday of Purim

Motzi – prayer/blessing recited before eating bread\

Ner (pl. neirot) – light

Nisim b’chol yom – a prayer of thanks and praise for everyday blessings; literally, “everyday miracles”

Panim el panim – face to face

Parasha – a section/portion of a book of Torah

Parashat hashavua – the weekly Torah portion; the part of the Torah read each week on Shabbat

Pirkei Avot --

Purim --

Rodeph Shalom – pursue peace; pursuit of peace

Shabbat --

Shalom – peace, or hello, or goodbye; from the root sh’leimah, meaning “wholeness”

Shamash – the tallest candle on a hanukiah, which is used to light the eight other candles; the “helper candle”

Shavuot --

Shemot – the second book of the Torah, known in English as the Book of Exodus

Siddur – prayerbook

Selichot --

Sukkah --

Sukkot

Tallit – a prayer shawl that Jewish adults may choose to wear during Shabbat morning services, High Holy Day services and other moments of worship; a tallit is distinguished by fringes tied with special knots on all four corners of the shawl, called tzitzit.

Talmud --

Tanakh – the Jewish bible, comprised of three parts that are further subdivided into many books; the three parts of the Tanakh are Torah, Nevi’im (the prophets and the history of the kings of ancient Israel, including the books of  Samuel, Isaiah, and Jeremiah), and Ketuvim (writings, including the books of Esther, Job, Daniel, and Ruth, as well as Psalms and Proverbs); an acronym for Torah-Nevi’im-Ketuvim

T’filah (pl. t’filot) – prayer; a Jewish worship service

T’fillin

Tikkun Olam – repairing the world; social justice

Todah – thank you

Todah rabbah – Thank you very much

Torah – The first five books of the Jewish bible; the scroll containing the words of Torah that is kept in the sanctuary; also sometimes used to refer generally to the entirety of Jewish texts

Tov – good

Tov me’od – very good

Tzedakah --

Tzedek – justice; doing what is right

Tzitzit – fringes on the corners of a tallit

Vayikra – the third book of the Torah, known in English as the Book of Leviticus

Yerushalayim – Jerusalem

Yisrael – Israel; the Jewish people; the name given to Jacob after wrestling with an angel of God; literally, “one who wrestles with God”